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¿Qué es la Arterioesclerosis?

La Arterioesclerosis es una enfermedad producida por el depósito de placas de ateroma en las paredes de los vasos sanguíneos, impidiendo el normal paso de oxígeno y materiales nutrientes a las diversas zonas del cuerpo humano.

Es la causa más importante de ataques cardíacos e infartos, así como de problemas cerebrales (demencia senil o precoz vascular; ictus o apoplejía).

El inicio puede ser a los 30 años pero puede continuar hasta los 45. Es más común en hombres.

Después de la menopausia las mujeres tienen el mismo índice de riesgo (antes las protegen las hormonas femeninas).
CAUSAS

Tejido graso que se acumula desde la juventud en las capas internas de los vasos, lo que provoca su inflamación y el depósito de calcio, reduciendo la elasticidad y el tamaño de las mismas interfiriendo con el flujo sanguíneo.
SÍNTOMAS

No aparecen generalmente hasta que está muy avanzada.

Los síntomas más característicos dependerán de la parte del cuerpo con mayor afectación y de la extensión de la misma.

La angina de pecho y el infarto son signos evidentes del daño producido por la arterioesclerosis.

Otras enfermedades que derivan de la afectación de los vasos sanguíneos del cerebro y del riñón.
FACTORES DE RIESGO

Hipertensión arterial.
Hipercolesterolemia.
Adultos mayores de 60 años.
Sexo masculino.
Estrés.
Diabetes.
Obesidad.
Tabaquismo.
Vida sedentaria.
Desnutrición.
Historia familiar de arterioesclerosis.
PREVENCIÓN

Reducir los factores de riesgo:

No fumar.

Dieta pobre en grasas animales y rica en grasas vegetales insaturadas.

Ejercicio físico regular.

Reducir estrés.

Seguir escrupulosamente medicación en caso de Diabetes ó Hipertensión.
DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO

DIAGNÓSTICO:
El diagnóstico se realiza mediante la clínica, analítica, electrocardiograma, test de tolerancia al ejercicio y otras según el aparato afectado.
El diagnóstico definitivo se realiza mediante angiorradiología.
Se realizarán pruebas complementarias para diagnosticar los posibles factores de riesgo, como una prueba de glucemia.

TRATAMIENTO:

El tratamiento de los factores de riesgo es imprescindible, controlando la hipertensión, diabetes, alteraciones de los lípidos, ...

El tratamiento quirúrgico es recomendable en los casos de alto riesgo.

Éste se realiza mediante angioplastia, bypass o endarterectomía, con o sin implantación de un "stent".

La línea de investigación que mejores resultados puede producir en el futuro será la sustitución genética de zonas afectadas.

Dieta

Con esta enfermedad se aconseja seguir la siguientes dietas:

Dieta pobre en sal "amplia"
Dieta pobre en sal estricta
Dieta pobre en grasa (protección bilio-pancreática)
POSIBLES COMPLICACIONES

Infarto.
Angina.
Enfermedades renales y oftalmológicas.
Fallo cardíaco congestivo.
Alteraciones del ritmo cardíaco.
Muerte Súbita.
PRONÓSTICO

Es una enfermedad de la que se va conociendo más cada día.

Una medicación y medidas higiénicas y terapéuticas correctas, pueden alargar la vida muchos años, pero sigue siendo una de las enfermedades con peores consecuencias a largo plazo.

Fuente:

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