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Encuentran cepa de K. pneumoniae resistente a todo tipo de antibioticos.

Continúan identificando bacterias resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos conocidos, teniendo el mundo pocas opciones frente a ellos.

Una cepa de Klebsiella pneumoniae aislada de un sueco de 59 años tratado en un hospital de New Delhi, ha resultado ser resistente a todo tipo de antibioticos.

Los genes responsables de tal resistencia se ubican en un pequeño anillo de DNA facilmente intercambiable (plasmid), entre diferentes especies de bacterias.

La nueva metalo-beta-lactamasa de Nueva Dehli (NDM-1: enzima destructora de antibioticos), ha sido identificada en 16 paises y en 14 especies diferentes de bacterias, incluyendo Shigella boydii y Vibrio cholera (Lancet).

"Este no es un problema que acecha en el futuro... Hay gente que está muriendo ahora por infecciones que no pueden tratarse", advirtió David Heymann, presidente de la Oficina Británica de Protección a la Salud, que no participó en la investigación.

No todos los pacientes infectados con la bacteria NDM-1 manifiestan haber estado en un hospital, el ambiente más común para este tipo de infecciones, por lo cual se realizaron pruebas en muestras de agua en Nueva Delhi, encontrando el gen NDM-1 tanto en aguas servidas como de acueducto.

Estas bacterias son resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos conocidos, teniendo el mundo pocas opciones frente a ellos.

Una vez que las superbacterias asientan en hospitales convierten pequeños procedimientos quirurgicos en proocedimientos riesgosos. El experto John Conly sostiene que las campañas contra superbacterias (reducciones en la prescripción de antibioticos), han concitado poca atencion de muchos gobiernos. En otros países, el uso incontrolado de antibióticos ha minado tales campañas.

Al preveer (1960), esta resistencia, Joshua Lederberg advirtió que el tema no es matar a las bacterias por todo el mundo. Con tal actitud, estas no solo no desaparecerán sino que mutaran y se harán resistentes.

Según Lederberg, una acción mas razonada es que la humanidad conviva con la mayoría de bacterias mediante medidas preventivas (vacunas) e ingesta de productos biológicos reforzadores de nuestras defensas naturales.

La superbacteria metalo-beta-lactamasa de Nueva Dehli sólo puede tratarse con un par de antibióticos altamente tóxicos y costosos. Desde que fue identificada por primera vez en 2008, ha aparecido en varios países, incluso Estados Unidos, Australia, Gran Bretaña, Canadá y Suecia. La mayoría de las infecciones se han manifestado en personas que viajaron recientemente o recibieron procedimientos médicos en India, Pakistán o Bangladesh.

Esta superbacteria identificada en el paciente sueco fue también descubierta en una cuarta parte de muestras tomadas en depósitos de agua potable y charcos en las calles de Nueva Delhi, según un nuevo estudio.

Los expertos consideran que es la prueba más reciente de que la nueva bacteria NDM-1 resistente a los medicamentos circula por el ambiente y podría propagarse al resto del mundo.

Por comparación, los científicos también recogieron 70 muestras de un centro de tratamiento de agua en Cardiff, Gales, Gran Bretaña. No se hallaron superbacterias en ninguna de las muestras. La investigación fue financiada por la Unión Europea y fue publicada en la revista Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Fuente: Fuente: Tecnologíaalinstante

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